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Comparison of vertical ground reaction forces between female elderly and young adults during sit-to-stand and gait using the Nintendo Wii Balance Board
Phys Ther Rehabil Sci 2018;7:179-85
Published online December 30, 2018
© 2018 Korean Academy of Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science.

Ji Young Lima,†, Yoonsil Yia,†, Sang Woo Jungb,†, and Dae-Sung Parkc

aDepartment of Physical Therapy, General Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Konyang University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
bDepartment of Sports Rehabilitation, Gimcheon University, Gimcheon, Republic of Korea
cDepartment of Physical Therapy, College of Medical Sciences, Konyang University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
Correspondence to: Dae-Sung Park (ORCID
Department of Physical Therapy, College of Medical Sciences, Konyang University, 158 Gwanjeodong-ro, Seo-gu, Daejeon 35365, Republic of Korea
Tel: 82-42-600-6419 Fax: 82-42-600-6565 E-mail:
These three authors contributed equally to this work as co-first author.
Received October 5, 2018; Revised October 29, 2018; Accepted October 30, 2018.
cc This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare vertical ground reaction forces during sit to stand (STS) and gait between female elderly and young individuals using the Wii Balance Board (WBB).
Design: Cross-sectional study.
Methods: Fifty-one female elderly people (age: 75.18±4.60 years), and 13 young people (age: 29.85±3.69 years) performed the five times STS test and gait respectively on the WBB. We analyzed time (s), vertical peak (%), integral summation (Int_SUM, %), and counter variables (%) in STS and 1st peak (body weight, BW%), 2nd peak (BW%), peak minimum (BW%), time (second), center of pressure (COP) path length (mm), and Int_SUM (BW%) in gait. The independent t-test was used to assess for differences in STS, gait ability, and general characteristics between the female elderly group and young adults group. With the first and last trials excluded, the mean value was obtained from the middle three of the five trials.
Results: During STS, Int_SUM and time of young adults were significantly less than of the female elderly subjects. There were no significant differences in peak and counter variables. In gait, all variables (1st peak, 2nd peak, min, time, COP_path, and Int_SUM) showed significant differences between groups (p<0.05). This study demonstrated that the validity of vertical ground reaction forces occurring during STS and gait was significant in female elderly and young adults.
Conclusions: Based on the measurement of vertical ground reaction forces in STS and gait using the WBB, it is possible to clinically improve the quality of geriatric physical therapy. Further studies are necessary to examine concurrent validity of elderly patients who have undergone total hip or knee replacement.
Keywords : Biomedical technology, Geriatric assessment, Postural balance


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