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Comparison of characteristics during backward walking according to various stride frequencies in underwater and ground environments
Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science 2018;7:83-7
Published online June 30, 2018
© 2018 Korean Academy of Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science.

Heejoong Kima, Yijung Chungb

aDepartment of Physical Therapy, Bobath Memorial Hospital, Seongnam, Republic of Korea, bDepartment of Physical Therapy, College of Health Science and Social Welfare, Sahmyook University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Correspondence to: Yijung Chung, Department of Physical Therapy, College of Health Science and Social Welfare, Sahmyook University, 815 Hwarang-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul 01795, Republic of Korea, Tel: 82-2-3399-1637 Fax: 82-2-3399-1639 E-mail:
Received May 24, 2018; Revised June 10, 2018; Accepted June 15, 2018.
cc This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between heart rate (HR), self-awareness of exercise intensity (rating of perceived exertion, RPE), and 5-meter walk test (5MWT) of persons affected by stroke during backward walking according to the preferred stride frequency (PSF), PSF+3 and PSF+6 conditions.
Design: Cross-sectional study.
Methods: A total of 11 persons with stroke (9 males, 2 females) participated voluntarily. All patients underwent backward walking under the PSF, PSF+3, and PSF+6 conditions in underwater and ground environments, and each condition was performed for 5 minutes. The HR, RPE, and walking speeds were measured during walking, and the measured values from underwater and ground environments were compared.
Results: The HR and RPE in the ground environment were significantly increased (p<0.05), and although the 5MWT showed an increase in speed, it was not significant. The HR and RPE in the underwater environment were also significantly increased (p<0.05), however, although the 5MWT results was increased, it was not significant. The HR and RPE were significantly increased in the PSF+6 condition (p<0.05).
Conclusions: The results of this study showed that backward gait training underwater can provide an appropriate exercise intensity for stroke survivors and suggests that exercises performed in an underwater environment is more effective compared to the ground environment.
Keywords : Backward locomotion, Gait, Immersion, Stroke


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